Interest in the subject of autonomous vehicles has vastly increased in recent years and nowadays it is a much discussed topic. Almost all automobile manufacturers are working on solutions of their own. Autonomos is one of the pioneers of self-driving cars, having started in  2007 and, since 2010, carrying out autonomous test drives in city traffic in Berlin.

Visualization and real-time analysis of a variety of sensor data, calculation of traffic-related decisions by the vehicle itself, integration of relevant safety measures – Autonomos GmbH is your point of contact in every aspect of autonomous driving. Our experience was gained from the many test vehicles that we have supported from the planning stages to their deployment under real traffic conditions.

WHAT IS … A SELF-DRIVING CAR?

The “Sense-Plan-Act Paradigm“ is illustrated here by comparing a human being with a vehicle:

 

 

 

SENSE:           Eyes | Sensors
PLAN:       Brain | Computer
ACT:     Muscles | Actuators

(Image © Dr. Miao Wang)

SENSE – Perception:
The vehicle is able to orient itself with the help of digital map material and a GPS unit. Environmental sensors integrated into the bodywork of the vehicle sense the surrounding areas in real-time.

PLAN – Planning:
The data from the sensors is merged and analyzed. The vehicle is able to plan a collision-free path through traffic based on this data, while obeying the rules of the road and maintaining a safe distance from other road users.

ACT – Action:
The control commands generated in the planning phase are checked by a further safety component and then transmitted to the vehicle’s drive-by-wire actuator over the CAN bus. This allows the vehicle to work the pedals and steering wheel on its own.

FLEET OF AUTONOMO(U)S CARS

“Spirit of Berlin”

“MadeInGermany”

“Einstein”

MadeInGermany
HAS ALREADY BEEN TESTED IN

REALITY CHECK

The prototype “MadeInGermany“ has proven its capabilities under a variety of conditions, from autonomous driving on closed off testing grounds to highly-automated journeys in real road traffic, always paying strict attention to safety issues. This has allowed our team to broaden its experience, internationally as well as nationally, in recent years. MadeInGermany mastered the different challenges posed by road conditions in Germany (Berlin), Switzerland (Zürich) and North America (USA and Mexico City).

SENSOR SETUP

A

LOCALIZATION

Applanix POS LV 510

B

STEREO CAMERA

Autonomos

C

CAMERAS

Continental & Hella

D

360° LIDAR

Velodyne HDL-64E

E

LIDAR

6 Ibeo laser scanner

F

RADAR

SMS, Hella & TRW

With the aid of the integrated navigation system (A) consisting of a high-precision GPS receiver, an inertia unit and an odometer, the vehicle is able to pinpoint its location. Using correction data (RTK) the level of precision can be increased to within a few centimeters. The vehicle’s position can be further determined with integration and filtering, even in tunnels and between blocks of houses where the view of the satellite is obscured.

The distance (and position) of surrounding objects is measured with the help of laser scanners (D,E). The data from the individual sensors are combined into a virtual sensor. The laser scanner measures the runtime of an emitted and reflected laser impulse (LIDAR – Light Detecting and Ranging). This allows objects to be detected within a distance of approx. 150m.

Several installed RADAR (F) measure the position and exact speed of surrounding objects using the Doppler effect. This information is added to the sensor data fusion along with the LIDAR data, enabling the creation of a robust model of the surrounding objects.

Cameras (B, C) installed on the windscreen record images and videos of the surrounding area. The recordings must be sufficiently clear to allow a range of diverse objects to be identified. Lane assist cameras have proven to be the most suitable for driver assistance systems. They recognize the course of the road markings and help the vehicle to remain in the correct lane. Our smart stereo camera analyzes 2D and 3D images and recognizes (and differentiates) various types of road user (pedestrians, vehicles). It is also able to identify the status of the traffic lights.

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